Solar System Projects


(KL-206) Auto Intensity Control of Solar Powered Street Lights based on Vehicle Density and Day light sense

The aim of this project is to control the intensity of street light by programmable micro controller to reducing as well as save the energy, as result the programmable micro controller is engaged to provide different intensity at different condition such as day/night hours and vehicle density during night time.

 This project is designed for LED based street lights with an auto-intensity control that uses solar power from photovoltaic cells. A charge controller circuit is used to control the charging of the battery, and an LDR is used to sense the ambient light on day time and IR sensors used to sense the density of vehicle. The intensity of street lights is required to be kept high during the peak hours. The street lights are switched on at the dusk and then switched off at the dawn automatically by using a sensing device LDR and IR sensors.

LED lights are the future of lighting, because of their low energy consumption and long life they are fast replacing conventional lights world over. White light emitting diode (LED) replaces the HID lamps where intensity control is possible by pulse width modulation. A programmable microcontroller of the Arduino family is used to provide different intensities at different times of the night using PWM technique. A light sensing device LDR (Light Dependent Resistance) is used , whose resistance reduces drastically in day light for sensing purposes. The vehicle density is monitored by IR sensors by placing apart at different location beside a road. The Light intensity control is done by pulse width modulation based on sensing the movement of vehicle by IR sensors such that as the vehicle moves the intensity goes on increasing for few lights ahead and as it is passed away the intensity goes on reducing.

 Thus, This system for auto intensity control of street lights powered by solar energy is a cost effective, practical, eco friendly and the safest way to save the energy.

 

(KL-207) Solar Energy and GSM Based Agriculture System

This project is designed to develop an automatic agriculture system powered by solar energy that controls a water pump motor ON/OFF by sensing the moisture content of the soil and atmospheric temperature using wireless GSM technology effectively for  agriculture applications through GSM mobile to monitor status as well control the pump remotely. The advantage of using this system is to reduce human intervention and to ensure proper irrigation.

 The project design consist an advance series of microcontroller interfaced to an GSM module and Sensors, which is programmed to receive the input signal of varying moisture condition of the soil through sensing moisture sensor and atmospheric temperature sense. The controller continues monitor these signals, and accordingly it generates an output that drives a relay for operating the water pump and light. GSM module is programmed to communicate with remote GSM mobile, Pump can be operate on/off through a SMS command sent by remote mobile at , also the sensor status is sent through SMS text to this remote mobilee and according to need user can ON/OFF Pump motor.  Thus, Using wireless GSM system user can  monitor and control irrigation system from any remote place through GSM enable phone. There is also a local LCD display connected to monitor the solar voltage, sensor data and system status for local monitoring.

 Moreover , this system is powered through SOLAR energy, We use a solar panel and its charge controller and battery to store and charge through solar PV (min 9 to max 14 Vdc Volt). The battery voltage is further converted in to regulated 12 volt and 5 volt using voltage regulators,12 vdc is for supplied to relay driver circuit and 5 vdc is supplied to the microcontroller and sensors. The op-to isolated relay driver will drive the pump motor and light upon received the signal from microcontroller according to sensor status and wireless GSM command.    

 This project can be further enhanced by integrating more sensors and using IoT system in wireless network communication.

 

(KL-214) Solar Maximum Power Point Tracking System & Its Application to Greenhouse

The main aim of this project is to develop a system based on solar maximum power point tracking system for green house applications.. The main controlling element is the micro controller in order to extract maximum solar power point. Further this maximum power is utilized to drive pump, fan and light of green house.

 This project design consist an Arduino series microcontroller interfaced to the solar charge controller, battery, dc motors and various sensors for environment monitoring such as light, temperature and soil moisture in greenhouse. Day and night sensor(LDR) will first sense the condition and give its output to the microcontroller. Depending upon the mode selection the data will be read by the controller and the direction of the dc motor will be changed. With this direction the solar plates which are fixed to the stand will also rotates to gain the maximum sun rays. Motor is driven by a driver L293 IC such that the panel moves and the microcontroller checks the output voltage at various points for Identification of points where maximum voltage and hence maximum power received by the solar panel. Maximum power will be detected by MPPT Algorithm developed, then fed to Analog to Digital converter and stored in microcontroller. The motor and hence the panel will be stopped when maximum power will be received by the solar panel and hence will start charging the battery.

 There is continuous check on soil, humidity and temperature can also be kept using sensors and solar energy stored is used to run a water pump and air fan and light or heater so as to maintain different parameters at an optimum level for greenhouse environment.

(KL-220) Microcontroller based Solar Charge Controller

This     Project propses a microcontroller based solar charge controller using PWM (pulse width modulation) technique. This PWM technique is employed by the Arduino series microcontroller. The microcontroller is to charge a 12V battery using a solar panel. The main feature of this charge controller is dusk to dawn operation; it switches „on‟ the load (the light) at dusk (evening) and switches off at dawn (morning). During day time, the load is disconnected from the battery and the battery is to be recharged with current from the solar panel.

Basically, there are two methods of controlling the solar charging current: series regulation and parallel (shunt) regulation. In this project, here we have used parallel regulation technique wherein instead of wasting the charging current as heat, we have made it pulsed and applied to the battery to keep the battery topped-up. The microcontroller reads the battery voltage with the help of the ADC and displays the values on the LCD. It monitors the input signal from the dusk-to-dawn sensor and activates the load or charging relay accordingly. When the solar panel voltage is present, the dusk-to-dawn sensor provides a signal to the microcontroller, which then displays ‘charging’ message on the LCD. During charging, the battery voltage is continuously monitored. When the voltage reaches 14.0V, the microcontroller interrupts the charging current by energising the relay, which is connected to MOSFET. After five minutes, the relay reconnects the panel to the battery. This way, the charging current is pulsed at the intervals of five minutes and the cycle repeats until the panel voltage is present. When the panel voltage falls below the zener diode  voltage of the dusk-to-dawn sensor, the microcontroller senses this and activates the load by switching on MOSFET  via opto coupler IC and “load on” message is displayed.

In this mode, the microcontroller monitors for low battery. When the battery voltage drops below 10 volts, the microcontroller turns off the load by switching off MOSFET and “battery low—load off” message is displayed.

 Normally, when the load is switched off, the battery voltage tends to rise back and the load oscillates between ‘on’ and ‘off’ states. To avoid this, the microcontroller employs a hysteresis control by entering into a ‘lock’ mode during low-battery state and comes out of the lock mode when the dusk-to dawn sensor receives the panel voltage (the next morning). During lock mode, the microcontroller keeps converting the ADC value and displays the battery voltage on the LCD.

(KL-420) Solar Energy Operate Auto Irrigation System Using Sensor and GSM Network

This project propose a solar nergy powered automatic irrigation system that controls a pump motor ON/OFF by sensing the moisture content of the soil and atmospheric temperature using wireless technology effectively for agriculture applications through GSM Modem used in sending an SMS on the status as well control the pump. The advantage of using this system is to reduce human intervention and to ensure proper irrigation.


The project design consist an advance serie of microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input signal of varying moisture condition of the soil through sensing moisture sensor and atmospheric temperature sense. The controller continues monitor these signals, and accordingly it generates an output that drives a relay for operating the water pump. It also sends these data in text form by SMS to the concerned number using GSM modem. The user remotely monitor the status as well can control the water pump by sending command through mobile over wireless GSM network from any remote place. A 16x2 LCD display is also interfaced to the microcontroller to display the status of the soil, temperature and water pump ON / Off condition.


A Solar power is continuously fed to this system using a rechargeable 12 volt dc battery, which receive charging current from a solar charging circuit.. This project uses regulated 5V, 1A power supply for microcontroller and sensors, regulated 12V dc is used for pump motor drive.



This project can be further enhanced by integrating Zig-bee or Wi-Fi technology, such that the data can be log and analyse it over PC terminal in real time wireless monitoring system.